Sabtu, 06 Juni 2009

Surprises and Disbeliefs

    Expressing surprises or disbelief is used to express something that we can’t believe or impossible.

To express surprises or disbelief, we use many words or many expressions, we can say :
1. What a surprise !
2. You’re kidding !
3. That’s unbelieveable !
4. Fancy that !
5. Oh,No !
Example :

Lia : What a surprise !
Yoan : What happens ?
Lia : The a our friend is singing at “ The Idol “.
Yoan : Ough, you’re kidding.



    Advertisement : Information persuade and inetivate people so that attracted to service and things that offer.

Fungtion of advertisement :
1. Fromotion
2. Communication

3. Information

We can find the advertisement on newspaper, tabloid, Magazine,

Radio, television, billboard, etc.

Kinds of advertisement :
1. Family advertisement.
2. Announcement advertisement.
3. Invitation advertisement.
4. Reques advertisement.
5. Offer advertisement.
6. Sponsor advertisement.

7. Article advertisement.

In making an advertisement, keep the following points :
1. The contents of advertisement must objective and honest.
2. Short and clean.
3. Doesn’t allude other group or producer.
4. Use word that polite and loaical.
5. Attract attention.
Modals In The Past Form

Modals in the Past form dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah kata bantu pengandaian dalam bentuk lampau.
Modals in the past are :
1. Could
2. Would
3. Should
4. Shall
*Could + Verb base
We can use this expression : to offer suggestion or possibilities.
Example :
Nia : I’m having trouble with math.
Rizki : Why don’t you ask Novita ?
Perhaps she could help you.
*Might + Verb base
Use might to tell possibillities.
Example :
Helda : Why is Rio taking the bus to get home.
Fany : He might get a flat time.

*Would + verb base
Use would for an action that was repeated regulary in the past.
Example :
Yoan : What did you usually do on holidays ?
Lia : I would visit my grandparents In the village, but how not anymore.
*Would + Mind + V-ing
Use would to express polite request.
Example :
Mrs. Lady : Would you mind posting the letter ?
Nita : No, Not at all.
*Should + Verb base
Example :
Nisa : Ima , you should go to library now ?
Ima : O.k.

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech


*Direct Speech
Refers to reproducing another persons’s exact words..
We use questation marks.

*Indirect speech
Refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s word.

Not all of the exact words are used : 
Verb forms and pronouns my change.

*There are 3 kinds of Indirect Speech:
1. Command / request ( permintaan )
Direct : Mrs. Venita said to vita “ don’t worry about it “.
Indirect : Mrs. Venita told vita not to worry about it.
2. Question ( pertanyaan )
Direct : yona asked “ Are you a Journalist ?”
Indirect : yona asked if / whether I was a Journalist.
3. Statement ( pernyataan )
Direct : Mr. Yoan said “ I worked hard yesterday “.
Indirect : Mr. yoan said that he worked hard the day before.

News Item

     A news item text is a factual text which information reader of daily newspaper about events of the day which are regarder as newsworth or important.

The structure of the text consist of three parts :
1. Newsworthy event
Recounts the events in summary form.
2. Background events
Elaborate what happened, to whom, and in what circum stances.
3. Source
Comments by participants in, witnesses to, and authorities expert on the event.

Language features ( tata kebahasaan ) :
1. Terfokus pada orang, binatang, dan benda tertentu.
2. Informasi singkat tertuang dalam kejadian inti.
3. Menggunakan action verb, misalnya : eat, dan lain-lain.
4. Menggunakan saying verb, misalnya : say,tell.
5. Menggunakan keterangan waktu dan tempat.
6. Menggunakan kata keterangan, misalnya : badly dan lain-lain.
7. Laporan menggunakan past tense : was, dan lain-lain.
8. Disusun sesuai dengan urutan kejadian.

Tenses usually used is Simple Past.

Finite Verbs

     A finite verb is a verb that is inflected for person and for tense according to the rules and categories of the languages in which it occurs.
     Finite verb can form “ Independent clause “ which can stand by their own as complete sentences , an independent clause as a complete sentence. It contains themain subject and verb of a sentences.

     In English , only verbs in certain mood are finite

These include :

1. Indicative mood : expressing a state of affairs.

Dalam indicative mood, finite verb harus menggunakan varb, example :

1. The buldoser demolished the restaurant.
2. Ani is going to visit her mother in hospital.
3. He has waited his father since morning.

2. Imperative mood : Giving a command.

Dalam imperative mood, finite verb tidak memerlukan subjek karena tanpa memakai subjek pun kalimatnya sudah jelas.

Example : 1.Positive command

                    - Help me, please !

                 2.Negative verb

                    - Don’t do that.

Narrative Text

    Someone tells a narrative text in order to entertain, stimulate emotion or to teach.

A narrative text has three elements or parts :

1. The orientation introduces main characters in a setting of place and time. It tells about : the story’s setting , the time when the story happens, and the main characters of the story.
2. The complications tells the problems of the story and how the main characters solve them. Series of events ( It includes situations, activities, or events that lead to the climax or complication. )
3. The Resolution tells the ending of the story (The complication or problem is solved here. It shows the end of the story, usually a happy ending ).
A narrative text uses the simple past tense.
Example :

     There was a porcupine named Landi. He was lonely. No one wanted to play with him because they were afraid of his spikes.
     Dear Landi. We don’t want to play with you because your spikes are too sharp. We don’t want you to hurt us, “ said cici the rabbit one day.
    “ Cici is right,Landi. It is not because you are bad or rude to us. No, Landi ! Just because of your spikes. They will stab us when we come close to you, “ said Tito the rooster.
      Landi felt lonely. He Murmured , “ why don’t they want to play with me ?”
Landi spent most of the time day dreaming at the river bank. “ I would have lots of friends and play with them if no spikes were on my body. I would be happy. I would not be lonely like this. What a shame ! “ Suddenly , kuku the turtle appeared from the river . He came to Landi and said , Landi , what are you thinking of ?”
“Oh, nothing, Landi replied”.
     “ Don’t lie to me , Landi . Please tell me your problem. Who knows I can help you, “ kuku said wisely . Then he sat beside Landi. He wasn’t afraid of Landi’s spikes .
Shortly , Landi told kuku his problem . Kuku nodded his head. He said, “ poor you. But it is not your fault. I know, your spikes are very useful and helpful to you. Your friends will realize it some day. Trust me., Landi”.
     “Thank’s Kuku . You’re really my best friend. You are the only one here who wants to be my friend “.
      One day, Sam the frog held his birthday party. He invited all his friends , including Landi . But he decided not to come He didn’t want to mess up the party .
     “I’II come with you , Landi. I’II tell everyone that you are harm less,” said Kuku. Finally , Landi attended the party . Every one enjoyed it.
Suddenly , Tito ran here and there screaming , “ Help ….help….! The spikes evil wolf is coming . save your selves , then every one ran to save their lives, except Kuku andLandi . Kuku pulled his head and legs into his shell. Landi rolled his body into a ball.
    Unintentionally, the evil wolf stepped his foot on Landi. Of course , the
Spikes pricked him. He screamed, ‘’ Ouch ! “ Since his foot was bleeding, he didn’t chase Landi’s friends any longer . Then he ran away.
    “Horray….horray….! Long live Landi ! He saved our lives, “ said cici and her friends. Everyone shook Landi’s hand and than ked him. From then on, Landi wasn’t lonely any more . His friends knew that his spikes would not hurt anyone, unless they wanted to hurt Landi.